"O que Lénin e Trotsky não atingiram com o fim de conduzir as forças que dormitam no bolchevismo para a vitória final, será obtido através da política mundial da Europa e América." - Rosenberg 1930

quinta-feira, 24 de março de 2011

clãs R1b

clicar 2 vezes para aumentar

clicar 2 vezes para aumentar

AUTOR: Stephen Oppenheimer

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Sickle Cell Anemia Project (SCA)


Sickle Cell Anemia (SCA) is an inherited (i.e., genetic) and hematological disease (i.e., from blood) that causes chronic destruction of red blood cells, episodes of intense pain, susceptibility to infections and, in some cases, premature death. It affects mainly the African descendants . Genes are inherited from parents, so this sickness is not contagious. Unlike the common anemia that can be cured with food that contains iron, vitamin B12 or vitamin C, the SCA neither has cure, nor can it be alleviated with food. However, it is a treatable disease and the patient can participate in the labor market, once he is receiving adequate medical treatment and has consistent responsibilities with his limitations and potential.

The SCA emerged in countries in central-west Africa, India and East Asia, about 50 to 100 thousand years ago, between the Paleolithic and Mesolithic periods. Paradoxically, it emerged as a human body self protection from malaria, which is common in regions of warm climate. The disease, which is passed from father to son, spread all over the world as a result of the migration processes, the colonization, and especially, the racial miscegenation (Figure 1). It is more frequent among people whose ancestors came from Africa, the Mediterranean countries (such as Greece, Turkey and Italy), the Arabian Peninsula, India and regions of Spanish colonization in South America, Central America and parts of the Caribbean.

Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) affects millions of people worldwide. SCD is the most common hereditary blood disease in the United States, affecting 70,000 to 80,000 North Americans. An estimation of SCD carriers in the United States is 1 in every 500 North American African descendants and 1 in 1,000 - 1,400 North American Hispanic descendants.

In Brazil, SCA is also the most common inherited disease and it is considered a public health problem. Besides, SCA was introduced by the slave trade which started in 1550. First, the slaves worked in the industry of sugar cane in the Northeast and later, in the gold mining and precious metal extraction in Minas Gerais. Not surprisingly, today, Bahia is the state that has the highest focus of the disease in Brazil.

The data of National Newborn Screening Program (Programa Nacional de Triagem Neonatal, PNTN) show that every year 3,500 children are born with Sickle Cell Disease and 200,000 with sickle cell trait. Generally, twenty percent of these children will not reach the age of five due to complications directly related to the disease. The infant mortality rate in children without any treatment is 25%. Rio de Janeiro Blood Center Data show a reduction of around 2.4% when the patient receives full attention in the treatment. Therefore, proper treatment has a fundamental role in reducing morbidity and mortality of these patients.

Although SCA is most common in African descendants, any person may have the disease or carry the trait simply due to racial miscegenation. According to PNTN, the highest incidence either of SCA or sickle cell trait is found in the states of Bahia, Rio de Janeiro and Minas Gerais.